Dos artigos científicos mais citados, 66% continuam no cercado das editoras.

66 out of the 100 most cited papers are paywalled.

The Authorea Team

The web was built specifically to share research papers amongst scientists. Despite this being the first goal of the modern web, most research is still published behind a paywall. We have recently highlighted famous math papers that reside behind a paywall as well as ten papers that have achieved a near rockstar status in research and the public. Here we systematically look at the top one hundred cited papers of all time and find that 66% of these papers are not open. Stated another way, the world’s most important research is inaccessible from the majority of the world.

A few facts about the top 100 cited papers:

The weighted average of all the paywalls is: $32.33, rounding to the nearest cent.

There are 1,088,779 citations of the Open Access articles, so, if they cost the same on average as the Paywalled articles and were paid for individually, they would cost a total of: $35,199,108.44–that’s 14 Bugatti Veyrons, or enough to buy everyone in New York City a Starbucks Tall coffee and chocolate chip cookie. In comparison, the total amount for the paywalled articles, assuming everyone bought the paywalled articles individually, is $54,722,252.80.

That’s 23 Bugatti Veyrons, or enough to buy everyone in New York City a footlong from Subway.

Although 66% of the most cited papers are paywalled, only 61% of those paper’s citations are from paywalled journals. Thus the open access articles in this list are, on average, cited more than the paywalled ones.

Title Citations Status Cost Cost to Buy Individually
Atherosclerosis – an inflammatory disease. 12,119 Paywall $20.00 $242,380.00
Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. 12,252 Paywall $40.00 $490,080.00
Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. 12,257 Paywall $39.95 $489,667.15
Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. 12,391 Paywall $32.00 $396,512.00
Improved methods for building protein models in electron-density maps and the location of errors in these models. 12,649 Paywall $40.00 $505,960.00
Accurate and simple analytic representation of the electron-gas correlation-energy 12,748 Paywall $25.00 $318,700.00
A low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy. 12,807 Paywall $39.95 $511,639.65
A low-cost high-efficiency solar-cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films. 12,873 Paywall $32.00 $411,936.00
Efficiency of ab initio total energy calculations for metals and semiconductors using a plane-wave basis set. 13,084 Paywall $39.95 $522,705.80
An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters. 13,258 Paywall $25.00 $331,450.00
Nitric oxide: physiology pathophysiology and pharmacology. 13,267 Paywall $25.00 $331,675.00
Optimization by simulated annealing. 13,293 Paywall $30.00 $398,790.00
Projector augmented-wave method. 13,330 Paywall $25.00 $333,250.00
A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. 13,332 Paywall $39.95 $532,613.40
Comparison of simple potential functions for simulating liquid water. 13,774 Paywall $30.00 $413,220.00
From ultrasoft pseudopotentials to the projector augmented-wave method. 14,049 Paywall $25.00 $351,225.00
Improved M13 phage cloning vectors and host strains nucleotide-sequences of the M13mp18 and pUC19 vectors 14,232 Paywall $35.95 $511,640.40
A new look at statistical-model identification. 14,275 Paywall $33.00 $471,075.00
PROCHECK: a program to check the stereochemical quality of protein structures. 14,462 Paywall $40.00 $578,480.00
Gaussian-basis sets for use in correlated molecular calculations. 1. The atoms boron through neon and hydrogen. 14,617 Paywall $30.00 $438,510.00
Crystallography & NMR system: a new software suite for macromolecular structure determinatio,n. 14,898 Paywall $40.00 $595,920.00
The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. 14,903 Paywall $14.00 $208,642.00
Tissue sulfhydryl groups. 15,019 Paywall $24.95 $374,724.05
Multiple range and multiple F tests. 15,047 Paywall $14.00 $210,266.00
Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. 15,160 Paywall $30.00 $454,800.00
The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. 15,517 Paywall $39.95 $619,904.15
Measurement of protein using bicinchoninic acid. 15,802 Paywall $35.95 $568,081.90
Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. 15,898 Paywall $29.00 $461,042.00
Equation of state calculations by fast computing machines. 15,902 Paywall $30.00 $477,060.00
Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via EM algorithm. 15,993 Paywall $29.00 $463,797.00
A simple method for displaying the hydropathic character of a protein. 16,059 Paywall $35.95 $577,321.05
An inventory for measuring depression. 16,264 Paywall $30.00 $487,920.00
Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches. 17,025 Paywall $39.95 $680,148.75
The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. 17,055 Paywall $36.00 $613,980.00
Study of the conditions and mechanism of the diphenylamine reaction for the colorimetric estimation of deoxyribonucleic acid. 17,067 Paywall
Special points for Brillouin-zone integrations. 17,087 Paywall $25.00 $427,175.00
Phase annealing in SHELX-90: direct methods for larger structures. 17,728 Paywall $40.00 $709,120.00
Efficient iterative schemes for ab initio total-energy calculations using a plane-wave basis set. 18,856 Paywall $25.00 $471,400.00
Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap 21,373 Paywall $4.00 $85,492.00
A technique for radiolabeling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity. 21,446 Paywall $35.95 $770,983.70
Inhomogeneous electron gas. 21,931 Paywall $25.00 $548,275.00
Disc electrophoresis II. Method and application to human serum proteins. 22,074 Paywall $38.00 $838,812.00
Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. 22,899 Paywall $32.00 $732,768.00
Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival application to proliferation and cyto-toxicity assays. 23,011 Paywall $39.95 $919,289.45
Self-consistent equations including exchange and correlation effects. 23,059 Paywall $25.00 $576,475.00
The moderator mediator variable distinction in social psychological-research 23,356 Paywall $11.95 $279,104.20
The attractions of proteins for small molecules and ions. 23,421 Paywall $38.00 $889,998.00
Isolation of biologically-active ribonucleic-acid from sources enriched in ribonuclease. 23,435 Paywall $40.00 $937,400.00
Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. 23,826 Paywall $35.95 $856,544.70
Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. 25,735 Paywall $40.00 $1,029,400.00
Density-functional exchange-energy approximation with correct asymptotic-behavior. 26,475 Paywall $25.00 $661,875.00
Regression models and life-tables. 28,439 Paywall $29.00 $824,731.00
Processing of X-ray diffraction data collected in oscillation mode. 28,647 Paywall $31.50 $902,380.50
Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides. 28,658 Paywall $40.00 $1,146,320.00
Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(T)(-Delta Delta C) method. 28,870 Paywall $39.95 $1,153,356.50
Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel-electrophoresis. 31,904 Paywall $35.95 $1,146,948.80
Mini-mental state: A practical method for grading cognitive state of patients for clinician. 34,532 Paywall $31.50 $1,087,758.00
Generalized gradient approximation made simple. 35,405 Paywall $25.00 $885,125.00
A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. 36,132 Paywall $38.00 $1,373,016.00
Basic local alignment search tool. 38,380 Paywall $35.95 $1,379,761.00
 Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. 38,600 Paywall $41.00 $1,582,600.00
Density-functional thermochemistry. III. The role of exact exchange. 46,145 Paywall $30.00 $1,384,350.00
Development of the Colle-Salvetti correlation-energy formula into a functional of the electron density. 46,702 Paywall $25.00 $1,167,550.00
Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. 60,397 Paywall $35.95 $2,171,272.15
A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. 155,530 Paywall $35.95 $5,591,303.50
Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. 213,005 Paywall $32.00 $6,816,160.00
MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models 12,209 Open Access
Accurate spin-dependent electron liquid correlation energies for local spin-density calculations a critical analysis. 12,583 Open Access
Rapid alkaline extraction procedure for screening recombinant plasmid DNA. 12,721 Open Access
The Protein Data Bank. 12,754 Open Access
Van der Waals volumes and radii. 13,417 Open Access
MOLSCRIPT: a program to produce both detailed and schematic plots of protein structures. 13,496 Open Access
Phosphorus assay in column chromatography. 13,523 Open Access
The development and use of quantum-mechanical molecular-models. 76. AM1: a new general-purpose quantum-mechanical molecular-model 13,718 Open Access
Use of avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) in immunoperoxidase techniques: a comparison between ABC and unlabeled antibody (PAP) procedures. 13,881 Open Access
MODELTEST: Testing the model of DNA. 14,099 Open Access
A comprehensive set of sequence-analysis programs for the vax. 14,226 Open Access
The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36): I. Conceptual framework and item selection. 14,332 Open Access
Isolation of mononuclear cells and granulocytes from human blood. 14,934 Open Access
Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. 15,022 Open Access
Estimation of concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma 15,469 Open Access
Determination of serum proteins by means of the biuret reaction. 16,009 Open Access
A rating scale for depression. 16,734 Open Access
Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease. 17,220 Open Access
Fuzzy sets. 18,203 Open Access
MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. 18,286 Open Access
High-resolution 2-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins. 18,489 Open Access
A new generation of Ca2+ indicators with greatly improved fluorescence properties 19,561 Open Access
The colorimetric determination of phosphorus. 22,690 Open Access
Reliability of molecular weight determinations by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 23,642 Open Access
The CLUSTAL_X Windows interface: Flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. 24,098 Open Access
Use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron-opaque stain in electron microscopy. 24,449 Open Access
The neighbor-joining method: A new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. 30,176 Open Access
A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. 32,131 Open Access
Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: A new generation of protein database search programs. 36,410 Open Access
A short history of SHELX. 37,978 Open Access
Clustal W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting 40,289 Open Access
A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. 45,131 Open Access
Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. 53,349 Open Access
DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. 65,335 Open Access
Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. 305,148 Open Access

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